[Haidarabad]) is located in the Sindh province of Pakistan. The city was founded in 1768 by Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro upon the ruins of a Mauryan fishing village along the bank of the Indus known as Neroon Kot Formerly the capital of Sindh, it serves as the headquarters of the district of Hyderabad. Before the creation of Pakistan, it was known as the Paris of India, for its roads used to be washed with perfumed rose-water every day and sandalwood incense would linger the air.
The political boundaries stage the city as a district and the region has seen major political turmoil. From the battles fought against the British occupation to the civilian unrest in the 1980s, the city has lost its glory of past and much of its cultural and architectural heritage lies in tattered ruins.
Hyderabad is a hot and humid city in the south of the nation and has been a staging point for literary campaigns particularly oriented towards the Sindhi language and a birthplace of a few influential poets and Sufi dervishes. Rich with culture and tradition, the city is the largest bangle producer in the world and serves as a transit between the rural and the urban Sindh.
Stationed close to important architectural digs like the pre-Harappan Amri at 110 km, the region holds extreme importance to palæontologists world over. The city is also known for its medical and educational institutions and is home to a few universities that rank amongst the highest in the country.
The Pacco Qillo built by Ghulam Shah still remains today but in a desolate state and a dire need of repair. The Muhajirs migrating from across the border in 1947 encroached the premises to make room for their residences.
An extremely rare photograph of Hyderabad from the late 1800s. The triangular structures on the rooftops are wind catchers, funnelling the cool breeze into the homes below, called a moug
Hyderabad is a city built on three hillocks cascading over each other. Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro of the Kalhora Dynasty founded the city in 1768 over the ruins of Neroon Kot (meaning the place of Neroon) , a small fishing village on the banks of River Indus named after its ruler Neroon. A formal concept of the city was laid out by his son, Sarfraz Khan in 1782. When the foundations were laid, the city obtained the nickname Heart of the Mehran as the ruler Mian Ghulam Shah himself fell in love with the city. So strong was his adoration for the city that in 1768, he ordered a fort to be built on one of the three hills of Hyderabad to house and defend his people. The fort was built using fire-baked bricks giving it the name Pacco Qillo (Sindhi: ??? ????) meaning the strong fort.
After the death of the great Kalhoro, started the Talpur Rule. Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur left his capital Khudabad, the Land of God and made Hyderabad his capital in 1789. He made the Pacco Qillo his residence and also held his courts there. Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur along with his three other brothers were responsible for the affairs that persisted in the city of Hyderabad in the years of their rule. The four were called char yar, Sindhi for the four friends.
The Talpur rule lasted almost over 50 years and in 1843, Talpurs faced a greater threat. The British came face-to-face with the Talpurs at the Battle of Miani on 17 February 1843. The emirs were valiant and held their swords high fighting the British but in vain. The battle ended on 24 March 1843 where the Talpur emirs lost and the city came into the hands of the British.
The British demolished most of the buildings around to accommodate their troops and their military stores. Hyderabad lost its glory and no longer were the roads covered with perfume. In 1857, when the First War of Indian Independence raged across the sub-continent, the British held most of their regiments and ammunition in this city.
Just before the partition in 1947, Hyderabad had a large community of Sindhi Hindus that occupied areas of trade and managed all commercial activity in the city. Their activities included responsibility of export of products that were made in Sindh and their efforts contributed significantly to the economy of Sindh as a whole. More than 25 percent of Sindh’s population were Hindus and were deemed the largest ethnic minority in the region. When the partition occurred, Hindus expected to remain in Sindh where their trade loyalties lay, however the influx of Muslim migrants from across the borders brought some unwanted chaos. The migrants wanted refuge in their new homeland and once they reached the Pakistani soil, they violently took over possessions of Sindhi Hindus and other minorities, thus starting an ongoing ethnic war between the Urdu-speaking migrants (or Muhajirs) and the Sindhis. Whilst the relationship between the Hindus and Muslims in Sindh was good enough, this huge influx of Muhajirs started to pour into Hyderabad and violence erupted on the streets. The Sindhi Hindus were forced to flee, leaving behind everything.
Popati Hiranandani, born 1924, a writer native to Hyderabad tells of this ordeal in her autobiography and describes that the police were merely onlookers when the violence erupted and failed to protect the Hindu community. Sindhi Hindus occupied most of the town of Hirabad – when they fled their buildings were ransacked and taken over by the Muhajirs. The massive migration raised population levels of the city to extremes and the Government proposed the creation of two new suburban towns, Latifabad and Qasimabad. The 1980s saw a black period in the history of Hyderabad as riots erupted in the city between the Sindhis and the Muhajirs. Chaos led to bloodshed and as a result Sindhis retreated to settlements in Qasimabad and the Muhajirs settled down in Latifabad. The city being forever scarred thenceforth is ethnically divided to date.
Geography and climate
Located at 25.367°N latitude and 68.367°E longitude with an elevation of 13 m (43 ft) AMSL, Hyderabad is located on the east bank of the Indus River and is roughly 150km away from Karachi, the capital of the province. Hyderabad is the second largest city in Sindh, eighth largest in Pakistan and 209th largest city of the world with respect to population. Its population estimates to 1,348,288 (as of 2000). Two of Pakistan’s largest highways, the Indus Highway and the National Highway join at Hyderabad. Several towns surrounding the city include Kotri at 6.7km, Jamshoro at 8.1km, Hattri at 5km and Husri at 7.5km.
Hyderabad has an extreme climate. The days are hot and dry usually going up to extreme highs of 40°C, whilst the nights are cool and breezy. Winds that blow usually bring along clouds of dust, and people prefer staying indoors in the daytime, while the breeze that flows at night is pleasant and clean.
In recent years Hyderabad has seen spills of heavy downpour. In 2003, Hyderabad received 105 millimetres of rain in 12 hours contributing towards a sudden climate change welcomed only as Global Warming. Years 2006 and 2007 saw close contenders to this record rain with death toll estimated in hundreds all together.
For a list of educational institutes in the city, see Educational institutes in Hyderabad, Sindh
The city being a gateway between the rural Sindh and the Greater Sindh, attracts students from the lesser developed regions of Sindh. Hyderabad has a huge number of schools, colleges and Universities.
A nerve centre of Sindh nationalist and literary movements, the city is now divided along on Sindhi-Mohajir lines to the extent that the warning ethnic groups even have different hospitals and in many cases, even their places of worship and graveyards are divided. The original old city, now dominated by the Mohajirs, seems besieged by the surrounding Sindhi suburbs. At one time a hub of economic, educational and cultural activities, a breeding ground of academicians, philanthropists, writers, lawyers, politicians, journalists, actors and actresses, Hyderabad also had its industrialists, trade unionists, political activists, bureaucrats, bankers and diplomats who made a significant contribution to sub-continental society. But this gracious city now seems to be slowly dying, although it still produces over a couple of dozen major and minor newspapers in both Sindhi and Urdu.
Universities and colleges
The University of Sindh is the dominant player in educational reforms since its inception in 1947. The University of Sindh,the second oldest university of the country, was constituted under the University of Sindh Act. No. XVII of 1947 passed by the Legislative Assembly of Sindh. It was founded in Karachi and relocated to Hyderabad in 1951, only because the city was re-enacted as the capital of the province of Sindh. It has 32 colleges affiliated with it. Other universities like the Mehran University of Engineering and Technology and Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences serve the interests of a wide range of other specialized subjects. Whilst people prefer to go to this technological and medical universities in the city, universities like the Sindh Agricultural University in Tando Jam focusing primarily on agriculture and horticulture, are highly preferred as well. Other universities in the private sector include University of East and Isra University.
Most of the colleges are affiliated with the universities above but some enjoy repute built of time like the oldest being the Government Degree College now renamed Government College of Technology with its high- and secondary-school affiliations with the Government High School who celebrate alumni like Mirza Kalich Beg.
Museums and libraries
Hyderabad is home to a few museums that store the cultural heritage of this land of religious and ethnic diversity. The Institute of Sindhology Museum and the Sindh Museum are a haven for Sindhi enthusiasts in ethnological contexts. Sindh Museum also hosts archæological treasures from Amri. Whilst there are a few libraries in the city, most of them are in a sad state. Allama Daudpota Library near Sindh Museum in Qasimabad stores literary work dating back to the earliest Sindhi text.
Hyderabad is an important commercial centre where industries include textiles, sugar, cement, manufacturing of glass, soap, ice, paper, pottery, plastics, tanneries, hosiery mills and film. There are hide tanneries and sawmills. Handicraft industries, including silver and gold work, lacquer ware, ornamented silks, and embroidered leather saddles, are also well established. Hyderabad produces almost all of the ornamental glass bangles in Pakistan. Hyderabad is a major commercial centre for the agricultural produce of the surrounding area, including millet, rice, wheat, cotton, and fruit.
Suburban classification of towns in Hyderabad as: 1.Saddar (Cantt.), 2.Qasimabad, 3.Latifabad, 4.Hirabad and 5.Old Hyderabad City
The city of Hyderabad is divided into five sub-divided regions based on the ethnic diversity of people dwelling in it. The suburbs are mostly based upon areas of Sindhi and Muhajir majority. However the city is expanding by the day, the following map clearly divides the various parts of the city into an accurate geographical classification as of August 2007. Each suburb has its own talukha or an administration unit – that covers a larger area outside their borders and includes some rural towns as well.
The current nazim for the Hyderabad district is Kanwar Naveed Jamil. Since his election as the official mayor, he had been successful in initiating major development projects throughout the city. The primary concerns that he had targeted as a result of these development efforts in 2007 were that of traffic congestion, supply of fresh drinking water, sewerage and garbage management, medical aid and schools for the poor.
Current development projects
In light of the above development criteria, the Hyderabad Government has planned construction of a new flyover in Latifabad U7 to relieve the traffic congestion on the GCD road which at the time of writing is estimated to be near completion. Due to the success and efficient development of this very project, five more flyover projects are in their infancy.
Two filter plants to filter fresh water have been installed costing about Rs. 80,000,000. Their inclusion in the water system would ensure continuous supply of clean drinking water. The filter plants at the time of writing are 90% complete and would be functional by mid-2008.
The Government of the city does not yet support fully functional e-Governance and has no website but the District Government of Hyderabad liberally uses the television as a mode of communication with the people of the city instructing them on public issues and awareness about projects underway.
Serving as a socio-economic crossroad to the lesser developed cities and towns in Sindh and linking and networking them with the bigger towns and cities in the nation, Hyderabad holds importance as a vital transportation link via every service. It can be reached by every mean of transportation, be it air, land, water or rail.
The city has a modestly good airport. The Pakistan International Airlines used to frequent it three flights a week. However, chartered flights can still land at the airport. The airport is located in the southern region of Latifabad. The airport in the days of its operation administered domestic flights to Karachi, Lahore, Dera Ismail Khan and Peshawar.
Although Hyderabad has a decent road network, but most of the roads are undergoing construction at the time of writing. Hyderabad is deemed the most important milestone on the National Highway which passes through the city. The highway divides into Route N5 going southwest and M9 going north while it forks into the KLP (Karachi, Lahore, Peshawar) Road and the Hala Road. Over the years, the M9 has had massive construction work to include six lanes across its 136km span being the most used highway in Pakistan while the N5 has two lanes to cater to its lesser traffic needs. the current roads inside Hyderabad city are in very poor state
There are seven big terminals inside the city area namely the Badin Bus Stop near SITE, Tando Bago Coach Stop near old sabzi mandi, Jacobabad-Larkana Bus Stop at Pathan Colony, Nawab Shah Bus Stand at Halla Nakka, Sanghar Coach Stop near Civil Hospital, Karachi Bus Stand near Qasim Chowk and Sammi Daewoo Bus Service To Karachi at Auto-Bhan Road and Latifabad U7.
Hyderabad has a rich rail history. From the starting days of the Scinde Railways to the purchase of the private railway company by the North-Western Railway now Pakistan Railways, Hyderabad has been a major junction on the rail-line, where railway lines proceed in at least three directions: northwards (up-country), southwards (down-country) and eastwards. The railway station is called the Hyderabad Junction and is located in the southern end of the Central City and the brink of the old.
With the city at the banks of the Indus River, the fishermen tend to use riverboats to fish and travel across the waters. Riverboats are not accessible to general public but local fishermen, in attempts of making money for their daily ration, sail people aboard their fishing ferries at Al-manzar, a restaurant at the banks of the Indus.
The Pacco Qillo currently stands heavily encroached with shops and residential areas making it unfit for repair. Walls give way and fall rendering the nearby places dangerous for dwelling or commerce.
People and culture
Hyderabad is noteworthy in Sindh and Pakistan generally for its relative tolerance towards religious affairs; members of religious minorities such as Hindus and Christians are not in as much danger there as elsewhere in the country. However, there has been a history of conflict in Hyderabad between native Sindhis and the Muhajirs, the non-Sindhi Urdu-speaking Muslim refugees who entered Sindh from post-Partition India in 1947 and who were awarded the abandoned property left by the departing Sindhi Hindus. Nowadays, Sindhis and Muhajirs live in relative separation, in discrete sectors of Hyderabad. A large influx of Pakhtuns and Punjabis were attracted to Hyderabad after the Indus treaty settlement. Most Punjabis mixed with the local population however most Pakhtuns are distinct and separately living near the railway station and its vicinity.
Native Sindhis mainly reside in Qasimabad, which is still developing. On the other hand Muhajirs live in Latifabad. A large number of Memons having two sects namely Diplai from Tharparkar and Kathiawari from Gujarat, India live isolated from other citizens. Many Shia-Ismaili colonies exist where Aminabad Colony and Mubbarak Colony are one of the most prominent.
While Christians constitute 2% of the total population, Hyderabad is the seat of a Diocese of the Church of Pakistan and has five churches and a cathedral.
Despite its strategic location and thrifty people the city is under the shadow of Karachi and yet to make its mark economically. One reason for this is the artificial factional and sectarian isolation imposed after the riots of late 1980s and early 1990s which cleft the urban population.
As tradition goes, Sindh had always been a hub for Sufi poets. With a foothold on strong educational foundations, the city of Hyderabad was made into a refuge for thriving literary advocates. Of the few, Mirza Kalich Beg received education from the Government High School, Hyderabad and carried the banner of Sindhi literature across borders. Modern novelists, writers, columnists and researchers like Musharraf Ali Farooqi, Dr. Syed Mehboob and Ghulam Mustafa Khan also hail from Hyderabad.
Hyderabad has served many Sindhi literary campaigns throughout the history of Pakistan as is evident from the daily newspapers and periodicals that are published in the city. A few worth mention are the dailies Kawish, Ibrat, and Daily Sindh.
Radio and television
With the inauguration of a new broadcasting house at Karachi in 1950, it was possible to lay the foundations for the Hyderabad radio station in 1951. The initial broadcast was made capable using 1 kW medium-wave transmitter. With the first successful transmissions on the FM 100 bandwidth in Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad in October 1998, the Government decided on opening transmissions to other cities where Radio Pakistan had found success. This made available the FM 101 bandwidth transmissions to Hyderabad and other cities in Sindh.
A relief from the regular broadcasts in other cities, entertainment content on the Hyderabad radio gave birth to many a star whose names became an attribute to Hyderabad’s richer media content. Among them were actor Shafi Mohammad, a young man who had recently finished his postgraduate degree from the University of Sindh. Such fresh and young talent became a trademark to entertainment in Hyderabad.
Whilst radio was gaining popularity, bulky television screens showed the broadcast of Neil Armstrong setting foot on the moon. Pakistan Television had only had half-a-decade broadcast success from 1963 to 1969 that people in the radio entertainment business felt destined to make a mark on the television circuits. Prominent radio personalities from the Hyderabad radio station like Shafi Muhammad Shah and Mohammad Ali left the airwaves to hone their acting skills on the television. Television shows and content enriched with the inclusion of Hyderabadi names however PTV never opened a broadcasting station in Hyderabad.
While the year 2005 saw new FM regular stations set up at Gawadar, Mianwali, Sargodha, Kohat, Bannu and Mithi, private radio channels began airing in and around Hyderabad. Of late, stations like Sachal FM 105 and some others have gained popularity. But the unavailability of an up-to-date news and current affairs platform renders the services of such stations of not much value to the masses but nonetheless appealing to youngsters.
As the Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority (abbreviated as PEMRA) gave licenses to private radio channels, so were television channels owned privately given a right to broadcast from the year 2002, and Daily Kawish, a prominent Sindhi newspaper published from Hyderabad opened a one-of-its-kind private Sindhi channel Kawish Television Network. Many followed in its path namely Sindh TV, Dhoom TV and Kashish TV premièring Sindhi content.
Internet and new media
Due to the late acceptance of technology in Hyderabad and unlike the city in India it shares its name with, Hyderabad has not adapted itself to embrace the Internet and the likes of new media. Many an Internet ventures have started out with hopes to level up with Karachi, the technology capital of Pakistan but have failed drastically. With Karachi overshadowing the technological race at a mere miles from Hyderabad, Hyderabad tries to linger in this information age and develop an undermined acceptance toward new media. With what success Hyderabad had earned over the years steadily declining  the snail pace towards a proper Internet usage may hinder more growth.
” Amri (Pre-Harappa) – an archaeological site dating back to 3600 BC, 110 km from the city, is the remains of a pre-Harrapan fortified town.
” Al-manzar – a restaurant at the banks of the Indus river. Here like any other riverside restaurant Palla fish ( local delicacy) is served with spices and hundreds flock to share its taste and environ.
” Rani Bagh – formerly a zoo named after the majestic elephant Rani, now serves as a theme park.
” Cubbas or the Mir tombs in Hirabad are of the former rulers of Sindh who were defeated by the British in the famous battle of Miani.
” Sabzazar is a famous restaurant of Hyderabad but open only in the evenings. It now has a sister restaurant called Al Aliyo open during the day time owned by the same management.
” Pacco Qilo and the Kachha Qila – forts, where kachha means weak.
” Sindh Museum.
” Institute of Sindhology Museum.
” New Hyderabad City – a well known private development area in the outskirts of Hyderabad, best known for its famous 12 acre park, Lake View Park, which features a man made lake and beautiful gardens. The park has become a recreational spot for the local families, specially on national holidays.
Hyderabad has a cricket stadium called the Niaz Stadium, with a seating capacity of 25,000 known for the first ever hatrick taken by a bowler in a one-day match in 1982. Hyderabad also has a hockey stadium.
” Jalal-ud-din of Pakistan became the first bowler to take a hatrick against Australia on 20th September, 1982 at the Niaz Stadium.
” The streets of Hyderabad were washed by perfume under the rule of the Mughals.
” The lowest Hyderabad ever achieved in temperature is 2°C.