Jehlum is a city in northern Punjab Province, Jhelum District, Pakistan. Jhelum lies on the right bank of the Jhelum River. The 16th-century Grand Trunk Road passes through the city. According to the 1998 census of Pakistan the population of Jhelum was 293,000. There is a variety of industry in and around Jhelum city. Major industries include the famous tobacco factory, wood, glass and flour mills. The tobaco company is commonly known as PTC. It is a multinational company and working under the BAT (British American
Jhelum is near the site of the famous Battle of the Hydaspes between the armies of Alexander the Great and Raja Porus (the Thathaal King). This battle took place a few miles downstream from the city centre, along the river banks. The city was founded to commemorate the death of Alexander’s horse, Bucephalus, and was originally called Bucephala. Nearby there is also the historic 16th century Rohtas Fort and Tilla Jogian.
During British rule Jhelum was connected by the North-Western Railway to other cities in the Indian empire, 1,367 miles from Calcutta, 1,413 from Bombay, and 849 from Karachi. The population according to the 1901 census of India was 14,951
According to the Imperial Gazetteer of India “The present town is of modern origin, the old town, which may have been the Bucephala of Alexander having been, on the left or opposite bank of the river. Under Sikh rule the place was quite unimportant, being mainly occupied by a settlement of boatmen, and at the time of annexation contained about 500 houses. It was then chosen as the site of a cantonment and as the head-quarters of the civil administration. For some years it was the seat of the Commissioner of the Division, but in 1859 his head-quarters were transferred to Rawalpindi. Under British rule Jhelum has steadily advanced in prosperity; and it is the entrepôt for most of the trade of the District, though, since the completion of the Sind-Sagar branch of the North-Western Railway; the salt trade no longer passes through it. It is an important timber dépôt, the timber from the Kashmir forests which is floated down the river being collected here. A good deal of boat-building is carried on. The cantonment, which is 3 miles from the civil station, contains the church and post office. The normal strength of the garrison is one Native cavalry and four Native infantry regiments. The municipality was founded 1867. During the ten years ending 1902-3 the receipts averaged Rs. 32,100, and the expenditure Rs, 31,900. Receipts and expenditure from cantonment funds in the same period averaged Rs. 31,900 and Rs. 6,100 respectively. The chief income of the municipality in 1903-4 was Rs.34,200 chiefly from octroi; and the expenditure was Rs. 41,000. The town has two Anglo vernacular schools, a municipal high school, and a middle school maintained by the American Presbyterian Mission. Besides the civil hospital, the mission also maintains a hospital.”
Jhelum was also a centre of resistance against the British during the Indian Rebellion of 1857. 35 British soldiers of HM XXIV regiment were killed by the local resistance and to commemorate this victory the British built St. John’s Church Jhelum. A lectern inside the church shows the names of those 35 soldiers who died here. This church is a historic building of Jhelum.
William Connolly, a British soldier won Victoria Cross in this battle. Mirza Dildar Baig was the freedom fighter who took part in the struggle of 1857 in Jhelum, arrested and hanged near the river Jhelum. His shrine is there and he is also known as .shahid nasir . The railway bridge on the river Jhelum was built in 1873 by the British engineer William St. John Galwey. He also made the great Empress Bridge over the river Sutlej.
As well as being district capital, Jhelum city is also the headquarters of Jhelum Tehsil, the city of Jhelum is administratively subdivided into 7 Union Councils.
The main market area of the city is centred around “Shandar Chowk” & “Muhammadi Chowk”, and includes “Main Bazaar”, “Niya Bazaar”, “Raja Bazaar”, “Chowk-Ehl-e-Hadith”,”Railway Road”, “Solider Arcade” and “Civil Line”.
A cantonment was built during the British rule, which has grown up into a strong Garrison, with an Infantry Division commanded by a Major General.
The city also boasts a high-class golf course called the River-View Golf Club, where national golf tournaments are held regularly.
Area of Jhelum City is About 36 square kilometers.
There are many colleges in Jhelum city. Some of the famous colleges are :
” Army Public School and College Jhelum Cantt.
” FG Intermediat College Jhelum Cantt.
” SLS College Resham Plaza Civil Line Jhelum.
” Fauji Foundation Model School & College, Old GT Road Near Railway Station,Jhelum Cantt.
” Govt. Degree College, TahlianWala Jhelum.
” Govt. College. G.T. Road, Jhelum.
” Govt. College of Commerce, Bilal Town, Jhelum.
” Govt. Institute of Technology Chak Daulat Jhelum.
” Jinnah Law College Near Kutcheri, Jhelum.
” Govt. College for Women, Jhelum.
” Wings College of Commerce, 4-Civil Lines, Jhelum.
” M.A. Jinnah College of Commerce & Computer Science, Al-Bilal Building, G.T. Road, Jhelum.
Jhelum has some of the largest hospitals in the area which include the hospital in cantonment area of the city managed by the Pakistan Army or sub organisations.
shaid mehmooreal trust hospital jhelum
” District Headquarter Hospital
” Combined Military Hospital
” Fauji Foundation Hospital
” Pakistan Institute of Commerce and Computer Sciences (PICCS)Bilal Town Jhelum
Villages and Towns
Some of the important villages and towns of Tehsil Jhelum are:
” Aima Bari
” Aima Ladian
” Chak Beraham
” Chak Doulat
” Chak Jamal
” Jalalpur Sharif
” Ikhbal Town
” Kala Dev
” Kala Gujran
” pindi more
” Mirza abad
” Mona Pind
” Mendhi Shah
” Nakka Khalaspur
” Pind Dadan Khan
” Pind Swika
” Tahlian wala
” Rayia chak maddu
” Zamir Jafri, famous Pakistani poet
” Rabia Qari, the first female Muslim barrister in South Asia
” Inder Kumar Gujral, thirteenth Prime Minister of India